2 RESPONSES TO CLASSMATE Heather R FOR DQ 1 DQ 2 6 15 18
RESPONSES TO CLASSMATE Heather R FOR DQ
RESPONSES TO CLASSMATE Heather R
TO CLASSMATE Heather R FOR DQ DQ
RESPONSES TO CLASSMATE Heather
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RESPONSES TO CLASSMATE
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2-RESPONSES TO CLASSMATE Heather R-FOR (DQ-1 & DQ-2)(6-15-18)

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Respond to Heather R. :WK-5-DQ-2 Checklists and rating scales are two commonly used tools in assessing different aspects of personality. A checklist is simply a list of items that either exist or do not exist and are marked accordingly. An example of a checklist in personality assessment could be basic markers for a disorder. If a practitioner was seeing a client who may have a personality disorder, the practitioner may have a mental or physical checklist of criteria that may be markers for that personality disorder. During one or more sessions, the practitioner could mark which criteria were met and decide whether further diagnostic testing was necessary. Rating scales, on the other hand, do not have a ‘present’ or ‘not present’ response. Instead, a rating scale looks at potential degrees of criteria presence. For this example, looking at a patient who may be bipolar, they have fluctuating degrees of depression and/or mania. A practitioner may choose to ask them about the frequency or degree of certain symptoms, thoughts, or feelings related to their depression and mania. So instead of checking yes for depression on a checklist, the patient may describe mild to severe feelings of depression or be experiencing depression one day a week to seven days a week. Both checklists and rating scales are easy to use and therefore get used quite often. There are many previously published checklists and rating scales that can be used, but if one didn’t exist it would be pretty straightforward to create one. The strengths of these tools are also the causes of their weakness. Since they are easy to make and use, they are not always given the proper time and research to assure that they are reliable and valid. There can be issues with phrasing that can affect responses. Also, if there is room for interpretation either in the question or response it can affect results. Just like interviews and observations, rating scales and checklists need to be assessed to decide what tool for data gathering is going to give the best quality results as far as valid, reliable, and repeatable results go. There is not always a clear-cut answer on what tool works best in every situation. Weighing the pros and cons of each tool for an assessment is going to be important when looking at the overall goal of the individual assessment. Personally, I usually prefer rating scales to checklists. The reason being that rating scales usually offer some form of depth to a participant’s response. Instead of simply saying, “Yes, I experience manic episodes,” or “No, I do not experience manic episodes,” rating scales can offer more information about the manic episodes if they are experienced. Essentially it can kill two birds with one stone. Reynolds, C. R., & Livingston, R. B. (2013). Mastering modern psychological testing: Theory & methods. Pearson Higher Ed. ISBN-10: 020548350X Turner, S. DeMers, S., Fox, H., & Reed, G. (2001). APA’s guideline for test qualifications. An executive summary. American Psychologist, 2001; 56 (12): 1099 Reply Reply to Comment -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------RESPOND TO: Heather R.(Wk-5-DQ-1) This week’s first discussion focuses on observations and interviews. Observations are judgments made by watching someone or something in order to gain information about them. Observations can be made with or without the knowledge of the subject depending on the goals of the observation. Interviews occur when one person asks questions to another in order to gain information. Interviews can vary in their structure—some lines of questioning being very stringent whereas others are much more casual. The goal of the interview and what type of information the interviewer is hoping to attain often dictate the structure of the interview. One of the biggest strengths of observation and interview is the ease of use. As long as there are clear goals for what information or behavior is being sought after it is quite simple to find the right parameters or ask the right questions to get it. Another strength in interviews and observations is the richness of the findings. If observations are done correctly and given enough time, or multiple sessions, there can be a lot of observable behaviors that can build a complex assessment. In a similar way, interviews with the right circumstances can yield a wealth of information and be very profound and insightful. On the other hand there are some weaknesses to both interviews and observations that need to be accounted for. People being interviewed will often answer in a way that makes the interviewer view them in a more positive way. In most cases, people know what socially desirable responses are and they want to give those responses so they are seen in a good light by anyone they interact with. This can lead to inauthentic responses and direct lies that will affect the results of the interview. With observation, there can be mistakes made due to the inexperience of or misinterpretations made by the observer. There is also no way to determine what causes the behaviors seen during observation. If an observer is looking for aggressive behavior and what caused the aggression, an observer could witness multiple events that may or may not have led to an aggressive behavior. There is no way to definitively say if or how any observed occurrence led to an aggressive behavior. Reliability and validity are a challenge when it comes to observations and interviews. There can be many factors that affect the results of observations and interviews. Multiple interviewers or observers, participant’s knowledge of being evaluated, and minor changes to surroundings or stimuli (including questions) can all greatly alter the results and therefore affect the reliability and validity of these research methods. Reynolds, C. R., & Livingston, R. B. (2013). Mastering modern psychological testing: Theory & methods. Pearson Higher Ed. ISBN-10: 020548350X Turner, S. DeMers, S., Fox, H., & Reed,G. (2001). APA’s guideline for test qualifications. An executive summary. American Psychologist, 2001; 56 (12): 1099 Reply Reply to Comment Requested : a month ago Due: 16/06/2018 Quote:

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